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Classification of steel

October 20, 2022

There are various classification methods for steel, and the main methods are as follows:
1. Classified by quality
(1) Ordinary steel (P ≤ 0.045%, S ≤ 0.050%)
(2) High quality steel (P, S ≤ 0.035%)
(3) High quality steel (P ≤ 0.035%, S ≤ 0.030%)
2. Classification by chemical composition
(1) Carbon steel: a. Low carbon steel (C ≤ 0.25%); b. Medium carbon steel (C ≤ 0.25 ~ 0.60%); c. High carbon steel (C ≤ 0.60%).
(2) Alloy steel: a. Low alloy steel (total content of alloy elements ≤ 5%); b. Medium alloy steel (total alloy element content>5~10%); c. High alloy steel (total alloy element content>10%)

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3. Classification according to forming method:
(1) Forged steel;
(2) Cast steel;
(3) Hot rolled steel;
(4) . Cold drawn steel.

4. Classification according to metallographic structure
(1) Annealed state: a. hypoeutectoid steel (ferrite+pearlite); b. Eutectoid steel (pearlite); c. Hypereutectoid steel (pearlite+cementite); d. Ledeburite steel (pearlite+cementite);
(2) Normalized: a. Pearlitic steel; b. Bainitic steel; c. Martensitic steel; d. Austenitic steel;

(3) No phase change or partial phase change occurs.
5. Classification by use
(1) Steel for building and engineering: a. Ordinary carbon structural steel; b. Low alloy structural steel; c. Reinforcement steel.
(2) Structural steel:
a. Steel for mechanical manufacturing: (a) quenched and tempered structural steel; (b) Case hardened structural steel: including carburizing steel, ammonia carburizing steel and surface hardening steel; (c) Free cutting structural steel; (d) Steel for cold plastic forming: including steel for cold stamping and steel for cold heading

b. Spring steel
c. Bearing steel
(3) Tool steel: a. Carbon tool steel; b. Alloy tool steel; c. High speed tool steel.
(4) . Special performance steel: a. Stainless acid resistant steel; b. Heat resistant steel: including oxidation resistant steel, heat strength steel and air valve steel; c. Electric heating alloy steel; d. Wear resistant steel; e. Low temperature steel; f. Steel for electrical purposes.
(5) Professional steel - such as bridge steel, ship steel, boiler steel, pressure vessel steel, agricultural machinery steel, etc.

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6. Comprehensive classification
(1) Ordinary steel
a. Carbon structural steel: (a) Q195; (b) Q215(A、B); (c)Q235(A、B、C); (d) Q255(A、B); (e)Q275。
b. Low alloy structural steel
c. Ordinary structural steel for specific purposes
(2) High quality steel (including high quality steel)
a. Structural steel: (a) high-quality carbon structural steel; (b) Alloy structural steel; (c) Spring steel; (d) Free cutting steel; (e) Bearing steel; (f) High quality structural steel for specific applications.
b. Tool steel: (a) carbon tool steel; (b) Alloy tool steel; (c) High speed tool steel.
c. Special performance steel: (a) stainless acid resistant steel; (b) Heat resistant steel; (c) Electric heating alloy steel; (d) Electrical steel; (e) High manganese wear-resistant steel.

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7. Classification according to smelting method
(1) . Classification by furnace type
a. Converter steel: (a) acid converter steel; (b) Basic converter steel. Or (a) bottom blown converter steel; (b) Side blown converter steel; (c) Top blown converter steel.
b. Electric furnace steel: (a) electric furnace steel; (b) Electroslag furnace steel; (c) Induction furnace steel; (d) Vacuum consumable furnace steel; (e) Electron beam furnace steel.
(2) According to deoxidation degree and pouring system
a. Rimmed steel;
b. Semi killed steel;
c. Killed steel;
d. Special killed steel